We look forward to your queries regarding practice and teaching of Music. Every week we shall feature the ones received and seek the helps of experts and our web-audience, visitors to provide a satisfactory explanation. Please click here to send. To arrange dedicated on-line learning sessions click here.


I would like to ask your kind help. Many years ago, I learnt a Lakhsan Geet for Raag Bhoop from my Guruji, Munshir Mahoharlal Kulkarni, in Chennai. Later on, I lost the notebook. I remember most of it, but not the notation, and I miss a few sentences. I think this Lakshan Geet is very common, and perhaps you can help me find it again. It begins as: Madhura Raaga Bhoop Gavat / Sab Sur Suddha Ma Ni Varjita / Mel Kalyaani ...
Mattia Salvini


Lakshan geet were created/ first documented by Pt. Bhatkhande to popularizeIndian classical music. Many creative musicians/ teachers began to create their own verses and hence there are sdeveral versions of Lakshan-geet for each Raga. Bhoop or Bhupali in Carnatic music is practised as Mohanam. In his Kramik Pustak Malika Pt. Bhatkhande explains it thus.. (Lakshan_Bhoop)


Can you direct me for learning Tabla in Abu dhabhi


You may request Ustad Faizal Rahman through mail, bijuampadi@hotmail.com.


Namaskar! I am interested in purchasing a the following books. Can you please guide me in finding them. Dhrupad Swarlipi by Harinarayan Mukhopadhyay published in 1929 in Allahabad. Nad Vinod Granth by Pannalal Goswami published in Delhi in 1896 Marifunnagamat by Nawab Ali Khan in three volumes.


The last has been published by Sangeet Karyalaya, Hathras, U.P. You may place your order with them.


Namaskar! I am a student of sitar for many years. How can I get a copy of the book Raga-Rupanjali (in Hindi) by Dr Pushpa Basu? I would like to purchase it. I am residing in Bangalore.
T. J. Joice


You may request the author Dr. Pushpa Basu or send your order to Ratna Publications, B 21/42- A, Kamachchhaa, Varanasi.


I am looking for recordings of Pt. Balavant Rai's (disciple of Pt. Omkar Nath Thakur). Please advise me whom can I contact? Thank you.
Dr.Kanak Ravel


Three Compact Discs of Padmashree Pt. Balavant Rai have been released -- (a) Unsung Maestro (Raga: Patamanjari, Suha Kanhada {Layakari}), Bhairavi (Bhajan) (b) Just Listen (Raga:Chhayanat, Bageshri(Layakari) (c) Bhakti Gaan (Prayers and Bhajans) Each CD, priced at Rs.100, can be ordered from Trimurti Electronic Co., Shastri Market Varanasi, U.P Ph. 0542-2223276 or
Sri.Rajendra Bhatt, 38 / 2  Bimanagar, Satellite Road AHMEDABAD,GUJRAT   Tel. 09825008724 or from Dr. Smt Geetsudha Pareek,Plot No.10; Ittar Ki Mor, iChaugan Stadium, Gangauri Bazar, JAIPUR , Tel: 09460676067


Is it true that Sarod has been digitized?
S. Farid


In a recent conference on musical isntruments Dr. S. Bandopadhyaya presented interesting modifications made to Sarod. Saraswathi or Tanjavur Veena has been digitized but successful electronic version of Sarod or Sitar is still awaited.


I am Ruma. I'd like to know contact # of Sharmila Biswas (odissi dance teacher, email and phone # both, if possible) as my daughter is interested to take lesson from her. She is learning bharatnatyam.


You may contact her on her e-mail ovmcal@gmail.com to seek permission to visit her at 256 C, Prince Anwar Shah Road, Calcutta


I am an accomplished player of Guitar. I am quite impressed by Ranjan Veena and would like to play it. From where can I buy this instrument?
Govind Mishra


Refer to reply given below. It is understanding of the unique qualities of an instrument that makes playing it pleasurable. In your case you should contact the inventor-artiste-teacher Niranjan Haldar.


Do you know where to buy the highest quality vichitra veena which Dr. Gopal Shankar Misra and his father would play? I was reading the article about the adaptions that Pt. Lalmani Misra made to the vichitra veena. I would like to have a vichitra veena with those adaptions. I saw that some of the vichitra veena's online were not fitting the description that Pt. Lalmani Misra had given for the number of strings to be on the veena. I would preferably like to buy it online, but could try to buy in person if necessary.
C Klacsanzky


Very few makers can follow the rigorous norms of making Vichitra Veena. Indian musical instruments are partially crafted by the maker before meeting the musician. They finish the instrument in accordance with the buyer's demands. In case you are not a serious musician you may order it online from any of the sources that suit you best. If you wish to acquire a Vichitra Veena to play ICM you must first understand the intricacies of the instrument. You may contact any of the existing Vichitra Veena musicians. As you have shown interest in the music of Dr. Lalmani Misra, you may contact his daughter Dr. Ragini Trivedi who is the sole exponent of Misrabani on Vichitra Veena.


In one of your answers to one of the queries, you have stated that Nayak Bakshu was also known as Baiju. Are you referring to Baiju Bawra?
Also, did Baiju Bawra live during the time of Mian Tansen or was he a contemporary of Amir Khusro? Is it possible that there lived two different Baiju Bawras: one during the time of Amir Khusro and one during Tansen's time? Nayak Bakshu is known to have accompanied himself on the Pakhawaj. Were/are there any other musicians who have/had this ability?
Sayan Sarkar


Historical record pertaining to Indian Classical music is scanty; yet scholars have tried to separate truth from tales. According to Acharya Brahaspati, 'Baiju Bawra' is a character of fantasy. You should consider reading some authentic books to gain true perspective. Several musicians may have played instruments along with singing. A true musician devotes himself to one activity at a time.


Can you be a professional Indian vocal singer as well as be a Professional Indian flute player? I heard that playing the flute can hinder the singing voice, is this true?
C Klacsanzky


Singing is a natural activity; playing an instrument requires conscious effort. Almost all classical instrumentalists possess a certain level of proficiency in vocal music. Playing the flute does not interfere with vocal cords, but requires different breath control.


I am residing in chennai. Jalatarangam is one of my favourite instrument. I always have a passion for it. But couldn't find a  GURU in Chennai. Could you please detail me about this 'online music education' and ofcourse about 'JalTarang - whether this rare music can be taught online'? I also need anther favour, are any Guru's available in Chennai, conducting JalTarang classes?
S Ranjan


It appears from your mail that you might have some knowledge of Indian/ Carnatic classical music. it is not easy to find a Guru for such instruments as Vichitra Veena, Jaltarnag, Israj and now, even Sarangi. You should approach instituions that may offer you some support to learn such a rare instrument with a practising Guru. Some of the resources online may help you with basics but the feel of the instrument is necessary to use instructions at a distance. You may request Madhukali for audio / video resources.


I am interested in the prospect of learning music online. Can you send me further information regarding this ? thanks & regards.
Shibaji Banerjee


It is not clear from your mail whether you have some grounding in Indian classical music. Before doing anything else you must begun to recognize a few Raga-s from patterns of notes they use. In case you can sing or play gather information about the Raga and practice the notes. A peer group found in music school or disciples of a Guru increases the pace of learning. You can also find resources online. Indianmusiclessons.com offers specialized teaching.


There are number of articles which speak of values and ancient standards. The young people who need to be instructed do not vist sites like this. Is it not time that omenad should take up the cause of preserving Indian culture through some real activity?
P Mishra


It seems that you are really motivated towards designing a society with more concerned and cultured citizens. Teaching is a long-termed process which does not give immediate results. Activity oriented organizations carry out this process in a different way, hoping for early results. They also succeed in creating awareness in general public, which may be helpful if their nascent interest is utilized in time. Madhukali motivated by concerns similar to your zeal has set up Academy for Appreciation of Theatre Music and Arts (AATMA) which aims to garner interest of people in classcial arts and impart ability to appreciate them.


'm interested learning veena. I don't have any idea about that. Is there any prerequiste before I start with that.
Prabhavati S.


It is good that you want to learn playing Veena. Try to get initial lessons at some music school in case you are starting from scratch. Most Guru-s require a certain level of acquaintance with musical style and instrument. You may begin with some reading to gain understaning of musical principles along with regular sessions of listening.


5/07/08 I am not sure whethrr the Sitar i have purchased is of chal or achal that. Is there a way to test?
Meena Bairat


If your Sitar has frets for each of the twelve notes in the middle octave it may said to be in Achal Thaat. However such string instruments were in vogue during medieval period when instruments of Chal Thaat gradually eased them out. Players found the presence of extraneous frets an annoyance. Now-a-days invariably all Sitasr-s carry only ten having done away with frets of flat Rishabh and Flat Dhaivat. The natural Rishabh or Dhaivat are moved if the Raga requires greater use of flat notes. In the Raga-s that use both variants, prominent one is elicited through fret position, while the lesser used is evoked through Meend. Until it is a rare antique, your Sitar is of Chal Thaat. Read article on Sitar.


4/06/08 I am having 8 yrs experience as a lecturer in music at U.G. & P.G. level as well as 12 years in the gurukul stream. Please let me know about Omenad's setup so that it will be helpful for me to join omenad as a teacher.
Santosh Parchure


It is gratifying to learn that a person of your experience is willing to become a part of Omenad. Just by showing your willingness, you are a part of Omenad's endeavour to impart knowledge about Indian music. Do send us an informal write-up about your activities, expeience and areas of interest.


3/06/08 Hi this is Naviin Gandharv,  luckily the only Belabaharr & Tabla performer in the world. My father has invented a unique instrument which he has named 'belabaharr'. My ambition is to popularise this instrument Belabaharr, which is a matter of pride for our nation & a gift to the music world as it has the most  possibilities of producing any type of music with versatality. Presently I am struggling with this mission but  a little support from the PROMOTERS  of  classical music like u can realy make the best .
Naviin Gandharv


Thank you for expressing your desire to promote this invention. Please send us details so that we may publish more information regarding this new instrument. Can more pieces of this instrument be made? Many innovations in field of music remain a one-time-wonder simply because there were not several models of he instrument. There is only one piece of Chandra-Sarang created by Baba Allauddin Khan that is with Ranjit Banerji, and no one has learned playing this from him. No one but Dr. Ramesh Tagade played Ramolin, a take-off on violin. Please invite enthusiasts to learn techniques of Belabharr with your father so that there are enough number of player to establish the instrument.



First of all, I would like to congratulate you for being the first website where I saw about the Ranjan Veena. It is a very sweet sounding instrument and the tone is very attractive indeed.But I would like to inform you that a similar instrument already exists in the form of Hansa Veena:



Also, won't Ranjan Veena's (comparitively) easy technique of playing affect the interest in other instruments, particularly the Vichitra Veena? Although its playing technique is similar to the Vichitra Veena, Vichitra Veena has a very distinct sound. Since the Sitar is a very popular instrument, I doubt it will be endangered if the Ranjan Veena rises to prominence, but the same cannot be said about the Vichitra Veena. There are not many players of that instrument today. I think that it would be great, if Mr. Niranjan Haldar somehow finds a way to popularise the Vichitra Veena as well.

Sayan Sarkar



We thank you Sayan for such interest and heart-warming remarks. In Indian music, use of one shruti in place of another results in a new Raga. Every Indian instrument has its own distinct place. Mohan Veen, Hansa Veena, Shankar Guitar are all take-off from guitar towards Indian veena; yet each instrument is unique, having aimed for and reached a definite stage in evolution. Ranjan Veena is different from all above, but still like the others (except Mohan Veena) in one regard that there is only one proficient artiste playing it. If your fears come true, at least there would be a considerable number of artistes opting for this new instrument. There are persons similarly concerned about the purity of Indian music and instruments; but it does not take more than one person in twenty years to keep an instrument alive. A challenging instruemnt like Vichitra Veena can never be popular, but if once every decade a committed soul takes it up, music lovers would keep hearing its sound. It needs only one Pushpraj Koshthi to revive Sur-bahar. Moreover with books like Raga-Rupanjali, the playing material has been adequately doucmented and would be available to anyone wishing to take up the isntrument.


23/04/08 I am researching into the ancient indian musical system of gram and moorchana. Do you think you could help me, by giving me your opinion or sharing your knowledge with me about this topic as there is not much available on the net that sheds any light on this complicated subject.

Jasvir Kaur



It is heartening to learn that you wish to understand the very core of Indian music. The topic is dealt briefly in almost every text book of music. For detailed study you may refer to Dhwani Aur Sangeet, Pranav Bharati and several others. You may also consult some library which offers bibliographic services.


12/04/08 With my sympathies to you and your endeavour, I present as a possible contribution to your website and its readers my article about tanpura. Especially now that one hardly has the chance to hear pure acoustic concerts with only real instruments and the art of tanpura playing seems to be eclipsed by the almost general use of synthesized tanpura boxes, it is prudent and fitting to question this trend. As a possible counter-medicine, I offer an in-depth aural investigation of the nature of jivari, harmonic resonance and the finer points of tuning and playing. In the spirit of my personal bhakti to Sarasvati I feel it is necessary to present helpful information and give a good example, all of which I tried to bring together in the article
Martin Spaink


Thanks for your concern. It is to encourage such discussions and debates that Omenad devotes a whole section: Theories We look forward to other views regarding Meta-tuning of Tanpura. An important aspect of good music is crafting of instruments. Lack of availability of traditional material results in poor quality of instruments. Artistes and enthusiasts should work towards availability of raw material.


26/03/08 Is Saraswati Veena the oldest insturment? Where can i buy one?


We shall not be off the mark if we say that it is the latest! Saraswati plays Veena. This religious idea is depicted by artistes in their own way. After the descendents of Tansen began calling Rudra Veena by this name, this epithet was applied to Tanjori Veena in south. To know more, read Saraswati Veena.


25/03/08 I am a great lover of indian classical music. Music is my first wife. Coincidentally my second wife is named as Veena. I am learning classical music as well indian old classics sung by great Rafi saab. Show me some path so I can develop this taste more& more in time to come.
Raaj Kumar Bahety


As an avid listener you must have begun to recognize the Raga-s on which songs of Indian film-singers are based. Try to identify and club songs based on a particular Raga; listen to recitals by great masters in the same Raga. Read about that Raga, note the nuances and combination of notes. Also pay attention to rhythm patterns. If you can spare some time regularly join a music school or learn with a Guru. You can also find resources online.


21/03/08 Hi! I would like to learn Veena. Could you please let me know some good masters in Bangalore?


Try to get initial lessons at some music school in case you are starting from scratch. Most Guru-s require a certain level of acquaintance with musical style and instrument. You may contact Geetha Navale or Manjula Surendra, 98, 12th Main, 6th Cross, Coffee Board Layout, HA Farm Post, Bangalore 24

Other Veena artistes in your city are:

Prabha Ramaswami B-103, Gagan Vihar Aptts., Ideal Homes Township, Rajarajeshwari Nagar

Shanti Rao, 633/A, 2nd stage, 17th cross, Indiranagar


8/03/08 Could you tell me more about Chatuswara ragas?? I would like a list of such ragas too.


Indian Raga-s have been concieved employing minimum five notes (Audav); those using six notes are called Shadav and ones with all notes present are called Sampoorna. Even Malshri, purportedly a Raga with four Swara-s, uses fifth note in kana form. Use of four notes was termed Swarantar. For details consult these articels from Dhwani Aur Sangeet and Bharatiya Sangeet Vadya.


8/02/08 Hi! I would like to learn Violin. Could you please let me know some good masters in Bangalore (Preferaby in BTM Layout)?
Krishna Swamy


You may contact music institutions or any of the following:

R RaghuRam #528,14th cross,27th main, J.P. Nagar 1st phase Bangalore 78 Tel: 080-6342969
S. Adithya 302,10th Main, 3rd Block, Jayanagar, Bangalore-11. Tel:9448013068 /26544770.
TT Srinivasan 2, Puttaranganna Layout, 1st Main Seshadripuram,Bangalore - 20. +91-9845354479


4/02/08 Hi! I am a  twenty four year  old girl  continuing my masters in the Jadavpur university. I am extremely interested to get a training of th odissi. I have previously had a preliminary training in this field as a child but later I could not continue due to physical problems. As a result I have forgotten almost everything. Now I am highly interested to rejoin it. I would be grateful if you provide me the address of some institutions which would help me in fulfilling the task.
Sabujkoli Bandyopadhyay


You may contact Sharmila Biswas at Odissi Vision and Movement Centre Flat 4B, Meghdoot Apartments, 12, Rowland Road, Kolkata or any of the following:

Shibaranjani School of Dance, 3B 4 Turf Road (Dipanwita Roy)
Shinjan Nrityalaya (Aloka Kanungo  24644141)
Chandril Academy of Dance and Music, 9/14, Fern Road (Arundhati Roy  ph. 4407187)
Odissi Dance Centre
  Balaka, 253J, NSC Bose Road 
 (Aparna Fating  4718772)

30/09/07 Hi, I love your site. Great info you have on a stand for a Jal Tarang set! I am very interested in buying a 22 bowl set. Do you have any good ideas of where I can maybe buy one inside the USA? I've also ordered a pro Dilruba from India, but it is taking a very long time to be shipped from India. I play modern Western acoustic music with a sitar player and I would really like to add the soft sounds of Jal Tarang to our collection.
Gayle Ellitt


US based suppliers of Jal Tarang bowls are not listed in our database. Even in India there are very few who can supply a set that really works; often more than two bowls sound the same and some essential note may go missing.


29/1/08 I am a senior Physics undergraduate at IIT Kanpur. I am interested in learning tabla in hindustani classical music genre. I did try finding out possible teachers in Kanpur, like Bharatiya vidya bhavan, but without much success. It will be of help if you could give me any contacts of teachers in Kanpur. I hope it is not an outrageous request from my side.
R N Kaushal


You may contact Department of Music at Kanpur University which conducts post graduate classes in music. Prof. Harish Jha of Tabla would help you in organizing your learning schedule.



I'm an Indian Classical Music lover from the distant Argentina.
Although I don't have any Indian origin, I loved this music since a child, both Hindustani and Carnatic. There is not any other music in the world that can fill my soul and my senses as Shastri sangeet. Obviously, I wanted to learn, but in my country, classical music from India is not very spread, and we lack of serious teachers, so the only thing I can do is to research about each raga and his thaat and sing it trying to imitate the real masters in my recordings. I know it's not the best, and goes agains't guru-shishya paramapara, but is the only way I can do it. Do you know any distance learning place to go? Or good books?

Another thing is that I would like to make a tambura and a veena. As they are very big instruments, and our currency is highly devaluated, importing those instruments is prohibitely expensive, so I would try to make them with alternate materials, as we don't have teak or jackwood here. Is it OK to experiment? When a tambura is not anymore a tambura? When a veena is not a veena anymore? And if making one of them is imposible: is it valid to create a new instrument to play as long as It can reproduce the meends and gamaks and shrutis of classical music?



As depth of your learning in Hindustani music is not known to us, no accurate guidance is possible. A teacher imparts precious theoretical knowledge while guiding the hands of students on any instrument. Human beings have the ability to inspire. It is when such interaction is not possible that learning tools have to be used. Appreciation is wide, learning is narrow. In self-learning mode one may not always distinguish between one's critical interests and task at hand. There is a book list on Omenad and several articles that refer to education and learning. A formal course for distance learning has been proposed to an open University and may soon be offerred. Meanwhile, you can collect syllabi for different courses from Music departments of reputed Universities like B.H.U., Baroda, Delhi, Rabindra Bharati etc. and procure books.

Indian music is always open to innovation. Its principles are so universal that unless correct sound is produced its notes can not be played to produce Raga music. The resonator -- gourd -- is an important part of Veena as are a flat bridge and movable frets. The wood serves to unify these essentials with firmness but without adding too much weight which may hamper performance.


I am 42 yrs old. I started my training in hindustani music when I was very young which was only for short time.  Now after a gap of many years I want to continue learning music. In 2002 while we lived in Agra i got  an oppurtunity to start learning again but that was short lived too. Since my husband has a transferable job, we keep shifting from place to place and so I cant find a proper teacher to learn. Now we are in Abu dhabi, my daughters are grown up and now i get enough time to practice. Can you suggest the methods to practice that i can follow as I cant find any teacher here. What  should be the method to learn and practice any raaga? Can You please help me? Also can you suggest a technique for singing kand swars?


Dear Padmaja, though it is not explicitly stated, you are interested in vocal music. The first requirement is a Tanpura. You can acquire an electronic Tanpura and Tabla which allow you to practice even without a physical accompanist. You should obtain some basic book which carries a few compositions and select two Raga-s that you are comfortable with. Approach each note in the Raga from Shadja as the base note e.g., Sa Re, Sa Ma, Sa Pa, Sa Ga.. and also in descending order in lower octave Sa Ni, Sa Dha, Sa Pa.. etc. Use the designated note in the Raga -- Komal Rishabh or Shuddh Rishabh. Pt. Omkar Nath Thakur has discussed techniques of Khand Meru in Sangeetanjali. You may also enjoy Prabha Atre's book, Enlightening the Listener which carries a set of audio cassettes for demonstration of learning techniques.


How can I buy text books for examinations of Prathama, Madyama and Visharad?


You may contact any book supplier within vicinity or order from Sangeet Karyalay Hathras (U.P.), India. You may also write to Manager, Publication Division, A.B. Gandharva Mahavidyalay Mandal PO Box 14, Miraj, Maharashtra. PIN- 416410


16/1/08 Dear Ome,
after reading the querie of Andreas Leitz about Sangita Ratnakara I feel this should be said:
Mirka Pavlovich wrote regarding Bharatas Natya Shastra quote Although many authors made mention of the treatise earlier, the first manuscript of the work was discovered in the 1860s. (http://www.sibmas.org/congresses/sibmas85/sibmas85.html)

Bharatas Natya Shastra(BNS) was discovered 1860, the Sangita Ratnakara (SR) relies on the music part of BNS. I think a critical study of the BNS is needed first to review SR.This institute wants to publish a critical edition of BNS, but giving no date when available.



In the text quoted above, Pavlovich further says, "However, whereas the former can often be seen documented and reproduced on ancient Indian temples and in live practice, many of the musical, theoretical principles set out in the Natyasastra unfortunately are no longer quite clear to contemporary musicians." Pavlovich is correct. In India music scholarship and music practice were divorced somewhere along the line. Yet Pavlovich misses the fact the contemporary scholarship has fully been acquainted with Bharat's principles. As stated elsewhere on this site a number of contemporary scholars have clarified the puzzle of 'missing links' and rectified erronoeus presumptions regarding Indian texts and music.

An entry from Wikipedia reads,

Carrying out research in the music of Vedic age, he unraveled the mystery of Samic scale. To re-establish the lost notes of that period he created a Raga Sameshwari. Dr. Misra also first made it possible in history of mankind, the twenty two Shruti-s (not to be confused with śruti, the genre of Vedic literature) to be distinctly heard on a single Veena. The invention and key to its function has been explained in “Shruti Veena” published on 11-02-1964 by Vikram Singh, Narendra Printing Works, Varanasi.

Kalidas Akademi is planning to bring out 'Natyashastra according to the commentary of Abhinavagupta'. Institutions like this should focus upon works of modern scholars as well so that a demystified form of Indian knowledge is available to global audience.


10/1/08 Dear Ome,
after starting to study the sangitaratnakara of Sarngadeva I found in the text a lot of difficulties. One main questions are his sruti. In my opinion his 22 srutis are equal in size if I try to solute it by logaritm. But from my pandit in kolkata I learned that today the srutis are unequal in size. Do you know, when the srutis become unequal. Do you know any scholar who study this importent work on music? There are much more difficulties in the text, but first I have to solute the problems by the srutis.
I read the work in Sanskrit and it would be fine to have other scholars to compare their and mine solutions of the problems inside the text.
Andreas Leitz


Movement of notes in Indian music is more vector than scalar. Shruti-s are microtonal units between two consecutive notes which are not equidistant. It is marvelous how the aesthetic coincides with the mathematical. Prof. Lalit Kishor Singh was first to express the weight of Shruti-s in his book Dhwani Aur Sangeet. You may also go through Dr. Lalmani Misra's Shruti Veena: Manifestation of Bharat’s Gram and ChatuhSarana.


24/12/07 I am writing a short bio-data on Pt AnokhelalJi and was wondering if you would be kind and send me some information on this truly legendary artist. Date of Birth, his full name, at what age he started learning, his first stage performance, number and names of his children and so on.
Rajendra Jadeja


Wish you all success in this endeavour. You may visit Varanasi to learn first hand about this legendary Tabla virtuoso. You might find some basic information in Prof. RC Mehta's Eminent Artistes of Yester-years and Pt. Chhote Lal's Playing Techniques of Tabla: Banaras Gharana

ps: His son, Pt. Ramji Maharaj passed away on 25th December 2007. Generations of students learned the art of Tabla from him at Faculty of Music and Performing Arts, B.H.U., Varanasi. He was unparallaled for strength of strokes; people would remark that he had fingers of steel.



Thank you for your reply. I appreciate it. The instrument was played with a pic, when I heard it. I have attached two photos which I hope may help.

Glenda Fawkes


It is clear that this instrument has more in common with guitar family than Indian veena-s. The Seung from Northern Thailand has four strings and 9 frets while Gra Jup Bee has 11 frets. This three stringed take-off attempts a greater accuracy with 14 frets.



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